MGOD : Mitochondrial Gene Order Database

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The Genome
Mitochondria are the power house of the cell. They are present in virtually every cell in body. They play an imperative role in metabolism, apoptosis, disease and aging. They are the site of oxidative phosphorylation, essential for the production of ATP, as well as for other biochemical functions. Mitochondria have a genome separate from the nuclear genome referred to as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Animal mt DNA is a small (~16 kb), compact, economically-organized circular molecule, composed of 37 genes coding for 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 13 proteins, with few exceptions specifically in invertebrates The thirteen proteins are mainly involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation of the mitochondria. Recent advances in sequencing techniques have made available a great deal of data on whole genome basis. Complete mt genome sequences are available for thousands of organisms. The order of the genes in the mitochondrial DNA molecule in a wide variety of organisms has begun to be disclosed during last two decades. The gene order is highly conserved in vertebrates (Figure 1b) except for the region around the control region (D-loop), which is more prone to gene rearrangement. Maximum variability has been found in the gene order in invertebrates. The control region of the mitochondrial genome is frequently used in population studies due to the high variability in its nucleotide sequence, while protein-coding genes, such as cytochrome b (Cyt b), are generally used for phylogenetic analysis of taxa.